A Song of Ice and Fire: The actual title of the 7-book series written by George R.R. Martin. A Game of Thrones was the title of the first book in this series, which HBO adapted as the name for the TV series.

Alchemists: An ancient society that once held great power as wizards of magic and science. They have largely been replaced by Maestars and today, they do little more than create wildfire.

AL: The timeline of the GoT world is measured in context to Aegon’s Landing. AL stands for After Landing, while BAL stands for Before Aegon’s Landing. This is similar to how real-life history is measured in context to the death of Jesus and we mark years BC or AD.

BAL: The timeline of the GoT world is measured in context to Aegon’s Landing. BAL stands for  Before Aegon’s Landing, while AL stands for After Landing.

Bannermen: The men that owe military service to their respective lords under the society of the Seven Kingdoms. In exchange for the land and protection a lord  provides to his smallfolk, they must in turn put forth bannermen, or soldiers, to serve under that lord. Each house and lord has his own bannermen. During times of war, several houses will combine their bannermen to form an army. For example, during the War of the Five Kings, House Karstark and House Bolton both marched their bannermen under King Robb and House Stark.

City Watch: Soldiers that defend the city of King’s Landing.

Dragonglass: Otherwise known as obsidian, this ancient material is one of the few weaknesses of the White Walkers. The Children of the Forest made many weapons from Dragonglass and provided the Night’s Watch with 100 Dragonglass daggers a year. It is unclear exactly how Dragonglass is forged.

Greenseer: A person who possesses the power of prophetic vision. It is said that one out of every thousand men is a skinchanger and one out of every thousand skinchangers is a greenseer.

Guest Right: An ancient and sacred law that is followed by both the Old Gods and the Seven which states that when a host takes in guests under his or her roof, neither the host nor the guest may bring harm to the other. This right is generally signified by the breaking of bread and salt. It is considered blasphemy to ever break this sacred canon.

Hand of the King: Chief advisor to the King and most powerful of the King’s small council.

Iron Throne: The seat of the King of the Seven Kingdoms. The Iron Throne was built 300 years ago by Aegon the Conqueror and was forged from the swords of all the opponents he defeated during Aegon’s Conquest.

Known World: Refers to the geography of the world that is known within George R.R. Martin’s world. The Known World consists of three continents: Easteros, Westeros and Southyros (which little is known about). Of course, it is logical to assume that there are other continents and landmasses outside of these continents that are yet to be discovered.

Lightbringer: The name of a great sword of fire that belonged to Azor Ahai. He fought with this sword 8,000 years ago to push back the White Walkers and end the Long Night.

Maestars: An ancient order of healers, scientists, scholars and sages that have trained for many years at the Citadel, located in Oldtown. Each house generally has a maestar, who is dedicated to a life of service. Maestars where link chains around their neck, each link represents another discipline that they mastered at the Citadel. Maestars generally provide services ranging from medical services to sending and receiving Ravens.

Old Tongue: The language that was brought to Westeros by the First Men 12,000 years ago. After the Andal Invasion, the Old Tongue was replaced with the Andal language, and today, the Old Tongue is all but extinct in Westeros. It is said that some North of the Wall still speak the Old Tongue.

Overlords: The highest lords of each region that are responsible with overseeing that region. Aegon the Conqueror established overlords in each of the Seven Kingdoms and allowed them to oversee their lands freely, so long as they pledged fealty to the King. For example, the Starks are overlords of The North, while the Tyrells are overlords of The Reach.

Ravens: These birds carry messages and act as the principle means of communication across Westeros. Maestars are trained in sending and receiving ravens.

Seat: Refers to the castle, keep or stronghold from which a House exists. The seat of House Stark is Winterfell; the seat of House Lannister is Casterly Rock.

The Seven Kingdoms: Though the realm of Westeros is still commonly referred to as the Seven Kingdoms, in reality, this is an outdated term that refers to the original Seven Kingdoms that existed prior to Aegon’s Conquest. More accurately, Westeros today is divided into nine regions, rather than seven kingdoms.

Sigil: The emblem or logo that flies on the banners of each respective house. Most sigils feature an animal upon a certain background that is representative of where that house comes from. For example, the Lannister sigil is a gold lion upon a crimson field.

Skinchanger: A person that possesses the ability to enter the mind of an animal and control its actions. Generally, this is easier to do when a person shares a close bond with that animal. Skinchangers that specifically enter the minds of dogs or wolves are known as wargs. Untrained skinchangers will sometimes unconsciously enter the mind of an animal during sleep. If an animal is killed while a skinchanger has enter its mind, a part of that person’s consciousness will die with that animal. A known example of a skinchanger is Bran Stark.

Steward: The person responsible for day to day maintenance of an Lord’s castle and affairs. In the absense of a Lord, a steward may be first-in-power of the castle.

Valar Morghulis: These two words spoken in High Valyrian mean “all men must die.” After giving her a magic coin, Jaqen H’ghar tells Arya that she must give this coin to any man from Braavos and say these words if she is ever in trouble.

Warden: In addition to Aegon appointing overlords to each of the Seven Kingdoms, he created four wardens after his Conquest. Wardens of the North, House Stark. Wardens of the East, House Arryn. Wardens of the West, House Lannister. Wardens of the South, House Tyrell.

Wildfire: A dangerous liquid that burns for a very long time once ignited. Wildfire is created by the Alchemists and it little is known about how it is produced. Tyrion Lannister uses wildfire during the Battle of Blackwater Bay to fend off the fleet of Stannis Baratheon. 

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